16 Hardest Programming Languages To Learn

There are many programming languages available; however, only a few languages are suitable for beginners. Besides, some languages are difficult to learn.

If you want to challenge or improve your knowledge with languages only a few people are fluent in, refer to these programming languages below.

Although it is difficult for a beginner, the languages below have their advantages and benefits. Do not skip any information in the article because you will learn challenging languages.

1. C++

C++ is one of the popular languages with speed and efficiency that surpasses quite a few others. As a fairly common language, yet, C++ is challenging to learn.

It has many complex moving parts that users need help solving. Accordingly, it is also hard for learners to fully know its advanced algorithms.

For beginners, learning C++ is a challenge. First, you should learn the most vital concepts, then practice what you’ve learned through small projects.

2. PHP

PHP is a programming language widely used in developing open-source coding applications. In other words, it is to serve general purposes.

Theoretically, PHP is considered a comfortable and suitable language for beginners. However, being dominated by many other languages, such as C++, Perl, or Java, makes PHP harder to practice.

Also, this language requires writers with knowledge of math and data analysis.

3. Python

Python is a language that emphasizes readability and is for various users. In Python, learning resources can be limited in some categories, making self-study more difficult. It also requires certain foreign language proficiency in coding and building high-quality software.

4. Go

Go is harder to access and learn than other languages. It has a complex structure and is harder to write. Writing code fluently takes us about 2 years of learning.

Fortunately, it’s easier to understand than other language forms. Updated versions and tight layouts allow readers to recognize and appreciate its code.

5. Forth

Forth is the complex language in this collection. It requires a broad knowledge of coding and structure. To master Forth, you must work hard to read and learn more basic and advanced material about this unique language.

6. Perl

Perl is a programming language utterly different from the usual compiled forms. It is one of the challenging languages to learn today, causing misunderstandings for learners. In Perl, more language and math skills are required.

7. Prolog

Prolog can be quite a foreign language for many programmers. Prolog’s syntax is straightforward. Its real problem lies in building the programs. You must use logic to set events and goals when programming with Prolog.

Unlike comprehensible language, you can’t copy and paste Prolog code and get the desired results. You may even face compiler errors or infinite recursion.

8. JavaScript

Being influenced by many other languages, such as C, Python, or Java, makes JavaScript the most challenging language today. This language’s knowledge is extensive, requiring you to be very good at learning and practicing.

9. Rust

Rust is an exciting open-source system language. It addresses many weaknesses in speed, safety, and control in some other languages.

Yet, it is one of the most complex programming languages to follow today. It will take you quite a while to handle the compiler on Rust. At first, you may also be overwhelmed by this language’s syntax, macro system, and approach.

10. Haskell

Haskell will provide you with shortcodes, which are specific to static languages.

Although introduced long ago, Haskell is not still a prevalent programming language. Its attraction comes from its good error correction and safety.

Haskell is a language with strong capabilities and neatness, allowing for good code reuse. Yet, since Haskell is a functional language, mastering it takes a lot of work. Indeed, you’ll be dealing with Haskell syntax and identifier names.

11. Swift

Swift is an object-oriented language developed by Apple. Many experts expected it to replace basic systems like C and C++ perfectly. Yet, this language needs to meet the high-end standards that many software require.

12. LISP

When John McCarthy first proposed it in 1985, LISP was oriented to become a language that could break all boundaries in the field.

And after many years, it has accomplished its goal and mission. This language possesses many vital features, such as object creation and rapid prototyping. Accordingly, many upsides make LISP an AI/ML language.

Yet, its model also has some downsides. For programmers who do not have a strong background in functions and variables, learning LISP will be difficult.

13. Malbolge

Today’s list of the most challenging languages cannot be complete without Malbolge. This language uses a somewhat confusing sign language system.

The time to learn Malbolge is also much longer than in other languages. Learners will have to spend at least two years learning and writing Malbolge.

14. Scala

Like Haskell, Scala is a language suitable for static systems with smart compilers. Coders do not need to specify or write long coding lines when using Scala.

Yet, Scala is also one of the most challenging programming languages. Compared to Java, C, or C+, Scala requires learners to go into detail and master basic skills.

15. Esoteric Languages

Esoteric languages are challenging to use. They also don’t come with references or tutorials that will take a lot of time for beginners to handle.

So a prominent example is Moo, a language consisting of only 12 instructions. Meanwhile, whitespace is also a complex language to learn.

As the name suggests, it only uses spaces, tabs, and feeds. So, even experts will find it challenging to handle this language.

16. Assembly Language (ASM)

ASM is the code that represents machine learning in a microprocessor. This language is often used to run embedded systems. In addition, many companies often use this language to handle hardware directly.

ASM works on many different parameters. Therefore, it is difficult for learners to know all the objects and master their operations.

To master this language, you must know hardware, software, and how computers work. So, a lack of knowledge about CPU and RAM will hinder you.


Above are the most difficult programming languages. Accordingly, most are often difficult for beginners or spend little time practicing.

If you have the motivation to learn and a study plan to master these difficult languages, you will surely achieve the results you want.

Thank you for taking the time to read the post!